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Melemo ea bophelo bo botle ea Garlic Extract Health

Black Garlic Extract ke eng?

A lierekisi tse ntšo tse ntšo ke mofuta oa konofolo o nkiloeng mofetsong oa ho baka le ho tsofala oa konofolo e ncha. Phekolo ea konofolo e ncha ho hlahisa konofolo e ntšo e etsahala maemong a batang haholo a nang le mocheso o phahameng oa ho tloha ho 40 ° C ho isa ho 60°C bakeng sa matsatsi a ka bang leshome.

Ka maemo ana, likhalase li fetoha ka potlako 'me li fetoha' mala o mosoeu ho ea lefifi / le lefifi. E na le livithamini le liminerale tsa bohlokoa tse kang manganese, Vitamin C, Vitamin B6, Selenium, Vitamin B1, phosphorous, koporo le calcium.

Kerese e ntšo e halikiloeng e 'nile ea e-ba sejo se ratehang sa tatso ea lijo ka makholo a lilemo Thailand, Korea Boroa, hammoho le Japane empa linaha tse ling tse kang Taiwan, ba e amohetse lilemong tsa morao tjena, haholo-holo lireschorenteng le lijong tse phahameng haholo. E sebelisoa haholoholo ho kenyelletsa tatso lijong tse fapaneng, ho kenyelletsoa le nama ea lijo tse tsoekere, mme ho nkoa e le sejo se monate sa lijo ka lebaka la thepa ea eona ea antioxidant.

Ntle le ho ntlafatsa tatso ea lijo, melemo e meng ea konofolo e ntšo e kenyelletsa tšehetso ea boima ba 'mele, ntlafatso ea bophelo bo botle ba letlalo le sesole se matla sa' mele. U ka reka konofolo e ntšo e halikiloeng ka mofuta oa phofo e ntšo ea konofolo, libolo tse ntšo tsa konofolo kapa lero le ntšo la konofolo.

Mechini e Metso ea Garlic e Ntšo

Naleli ea konofolo e ntšo e na le mokhoa oa ho hanyetsa moo e fihlelang ka ho fokotseha NO le tlhahiso ea cytokine ea pro-inflammatory e hlahisang lisele tsa RPS264.7. Karolo ea khalase ea hexane e atisang ho ata ha sele le ICAM-1 le polelo ea VCAM-1 ho lisele tsa methapo ea methapo ea mmele ea TNF-α-endometrial.

E tsoela pele ho thibela, li-leukotrienes, li-cytokine tse amanang le ts'oaetso le mesebetsi ea COX-2 le 5-lipoo oxygenase ka har'a lisele tse hlahisitsoeng ke RAW264.7. Ka lebaka leo, tšoaetso e ka fokola haholo kapa ea thibeloa ho etsahala.

Ha ho tluoa mesebetsing ea oxidative, konofolo e ntšo e na le li-phenols le flavonoids, tseo ka bobeli li phetha karolo ea bohlokoa ho ts'ebetsong ea tseleng ea Nrf2. Lithako tse fapaneng tse fanoang ke konofolo li eketsa maemo a polelo a mRNA ho li-enzyme tsa antioxidant joalo ka HO-1, NQO1, le GST. Lithako tse kenyelletsang lihlahisoa tsa tetrahydro-β-carboline, N-frodosyl glutamate, N-fructosyl arginine allixin le selenium, fihlella sena ka ts'ebetso ea Nrf2.

Tlhahiso e Ntle ea Garlic

Joalokaha ho se ho boletsoe pejana, konofolo e ntšo e ntšoa ka konofolo e ncha ka ho e belisa tikolohong e laoloang ka thata. Tikoloho e lokela ho ba e mongobo haholo (e nang le mongobo o lekanang le 80 ho isa ho 90%) mme e chese joalo ka 40 °C ho 60 °C. Nakong ea ts'ebetso, metsoako e fapaneng e hlahisoa ka lebaka la karabelo ea Maillard.

Ha nako e ntse e tsamaea, konofolo e kileng ea ba tšoeu e fifala 'mala o motšo. Le tsona lia ntlafala tangy e monate haholo, syrupy, tatso ea balsame, sebopeho sa chewy le monko o ikhethang.

Nako ea ts'ebetso ea kalafo e fapana ho tloha ho mohlahisi e mong ho ea ho e mong empa ka tloaelo e qala matsatsi a mane ho isa ho a mashome a mane. Sena se its'etleha holima moetlo le lithahasello tsa baetsi hammoho le sepheo se reriloeng sa konopo ea konofolo e ntšo.

Leha ho le joalo, ho latela se fumanoeng ke boithuto bo le bong, matsatsi a 21 a loketse ha kalafo ea konofolo e etsoa mochesong oa 90% le mocheso oa 70 60 °C. Ho latela lipatlisiso, maemo le nako ea kalafo li ntlafatsa bokhoni ba li-antioxidant ba lihlahisoa tse hlahisitsoeng, ka hona, melemo ea konofolo e ntšo e phahameng.

Melemo ea bophelo bo botle ea Garlic Extract Health

Ho na le tse ngata litlolo tse ntšo li ntša melemo ea bophelo bo botle, Ho kenyelletswa le:

Bori-Garlic-Extract-1

1. Black Garlic Extract e Thusa Ka Ho Laola Boholo

Liphumano tsa phuputso e le 'ngoe ea rat e bontšitse hore konofolo e ntšo e ka fokotsa boima ba' mele haholo, boholo ba sele ea mafura le mala. Sena e ne e le sesupo se matla sa hore ho ka ba le konofolo e ntšo boima ba 'mele melemo hara batho.

Bopaki bo tšehetsoa ke phuputso ea morao-rao e bonts'ang hore ho kenyelletsa konofolo e ntšo ho ka ntlafatsa bokhoni ba ho chesa khalori ea 'mele oa hau. Sena se ka u thusa ho theola boima ba 'mele kapele bakeng sa bophelo bo botle le fisiks.

Ka hona, haeba o motenya haholo kapa o mpa o batla ho theola boima ba 'mele, nahana ka ho kenya motlakase o mongata oa boima ba konofolo.

Boreleli-Garlic-Extract

2. Melemo e putsoa e ntšo bakeng sa letlalo

Melemo ea konofolo e ntšo bakeng sa letlalo ke ka lebaka la ho fumaneha ha S- allylcysteine ​​komporong. K'homphieutha e etsa hore konofolo e khone ho tšela 'mele oa hau habonolo le' mele oa hau ho itšireletsa khahlanong le tšoaetso.

O mong oa melemo ea konofolo e ntšo bakeng sa letlalo ke thibelo ea makhopho le senya. Makhopo ke boemo ba letlalo la baktheria bo tsebahalang ka likoli le bumps-like pimples on your letlalo. Li-pimples li etsahala ka lebaka la ho khopisa le ho ruruha ha methapo ea moriri oa hau.

Ka lebaka la thepa ea eona ea antibacterial, ka lebaka la allicin, konofolo e ntšo e bolaea libaktheria tse bakang makhopho. Ho feta moo, phello ea eona e khahlanong le ho ruruha e thusa ho fokotsa ho ruruha le ho ruruha ho amanang le makhopho.

3. Black Garlic Extract E Thusa ka ntlafatso ea cholesterol ea 'mele

Boithuto bo fapaneng ba saense bo bontša hore konofolo e ntšo e thusa ho ntlafatsa cholesterol ho batho ba loanang le maemo a cholesterol a bonolo haholo. E eketsa lipoprotein tse phahameng haholo (HDL), cholesterol e ntle ho motho. Boithuto bo bong bo fana ka maikutlo a hore e boetse e theola maemo a cholesterol e mpe le triglycerides e phahameng.

Boreleli-Garlic-Extract

4.Black Garlic Extract e Thusa Ka ntlafatso ea khatello ea mali

Kerese e ntšo e na le metsoako ea organosulfur, konofolo e ntšo hape e thusa mokelikeli oa mali ho phomola. Ho phomola hona ho lebisa khatello ea mali e fokolisitsoeng kaha mali a na le sebaka sa ho phalla hantle.

Phuputsong e amang bakuli ba 79 ba nang le khatello e phahameng ea mali, bafuputsi ba hlokometse ho fokotseha ha khatello ea mali ho 11.8 mm hara bakuli ba nkile matlapa a konofolo. Bakuli bana ba ne ba fuoa mofuta oa kalafo ea konofolo ea libeke tse 12 moo ba neng ba nka matlapa a konofolo a mabeli kapa a mane letsatsi le leng le le leng nakong eohle.

5. Thuso ea ho Khumola

E imetse antioxidants, konofolo e ntšo e ka fana ka liphallelo tse kholo tsa ho ruruha. Sena se bakoa ke taba ea hore li-antioxidants li laola ho ts'oaroa ha lisele, ka hona li kenya letsoho phokotsong ea ho ruruha. Ntle le moo, li-antioxidants li khelosa "radicals" e kotsi e kotsi e teng 'meleng oa hau ho sireletsa lisele tsa mmele oa hau khatellong ea li-oxidative e li lematsang, ka lebaka leo li lebisa ho ruruhang.

Boreleli-Garlic-Extract

6. Moriri o phetseng hantle

Melemo ea konofolo e ntšo bakeng sa moriri e ntse e tsebahala ho batho ho tloha linako tsa khale. Kajeno, oli ea konofolo e ntšo e fumaneha mabenkeleng a mangata a litlolo ho fa batho ba batlang ho boloka moriri o phetseng hantle ka melemo ea konofolo e ntšo bakeng sa moriri. Oli e ts'ehetsa kholo ea moriri o mocha, e emisa ho oa ha moriri le ho fokotsa tahlehelo ea moriri ha e sebelisoa khafetsa.

Litlhare tse ntšo li thusa melee ea moriri hobane 'mala o na le lintho tse khahlanong le likokoana-hloko, ka hona, matla a ho loants'oa libaktheria, livaerase, fungus, hammoho le likokoana-hloko. Ka hona, haeba o tšela oli ea konofolo e ntšo letlalong la hao, e ka thibela kholo ea tlhaho ea lintho tsena. Ka lebaka leo, moriri oa hau oa moriri le letlalo le boreleli lia ntlafala.

Ntle le moo, melemo ea konofolo e ntšo bakeng sa moriri e hlahisoa ke litla-morao tse khahlanong le ho ruruha. Ts'ebeliso ea oli ea moriri o motšo ho letlalo la hau e ka fokotsa ho ruruha le ho teneha ho tsamaeang le ho potlakisa tahlehelo ea moriri maemong a mang.

7. Black Garlic Extract e Thusa ka thibelo ea Khokahano ea Kankere

Ho ea ka phuputso e entsoeng Japane e entsoeng ka 2007, tšebeliso ea konofolo e ntšo e ka nyenyefatsa hlahala ea litoeba. Bafuputsi ba belaela hore sena se ka etsahala le ho batho. Boemo bona bo lumellana le tlhahlobo e hlophisehileng ea Journal of International ea Preventive Medicine. Tlhahlobo e fana ka maikutlo a hore tšebeliso ea likhalase tse tsofetseng e amana hampe le kholo ea mofets'e.

Hape, tlhahlobo ea vitro e entsoeng ka 2014 e bonts'itse hore motsoako o motšo oa konofolo o ntšo o ka fokotsa kankere ea colon kholo ea lisele esita le ho bolaea lisele tsa mofetše.

Boreleli-Garlic-Extract

8. Sesebelisoa sa Garlic se Ntsho se netefatsa bophelo bo botle ba pelo

Ho ntlafatsa bophelo ba pelo ke e 'ngoe ea melemo e tummeng ea konofolo e ntšo. Mohlaleng oa phoofolo oa 2018 o bapisa melemo ea konofolo e ntšo le litlamorao tsa konofolo e tala ho bophelo ba pelo bakeng sa motho hore a fole, bafuputsi ba fumane hore mefuta e 'meli ea konofolo e ne e sebetsa hantle ka tsela e tšoanang ho fokotsa tšenyo ea pelo.

Ntle le moo, ka lebaka la bokhoni ba eona ba ho laola k'holeseterole, konofolo e ntšo e tšolohileng le eona e ka fokotsa kotsi ea lefu la pelo.

Boreleli-Garlic-Extract

9. Sesebelisoa sa Garlic se ntšo se thusa ka ntlafatso ea bophelo ba Brain

Ntle le moo, konofolo e ntšo e ka boela ea ntlafatsa mohopolo oa hau, haholo haeba o loana le boemo ba kelello bo kang lefu la Parkinson, lefu la Alzheimer's kapa 'dementia'. Li-antioxidants tse teng ka hare li ka fokotsa ts'oaetso e ikarabellang bakeng sa kapa e amanang le boemo bona. Ka lebaka leo, bophelo ba kelello ba hau boa ntlafala, ka ho khona ho hopola lintho hantle.

Litala tse ling li ntša melemo ea bophelo bo botle

Kaha litlolo tse 'mala o moputsoa li matlafatsa sesole sa' mele, li ka sebetsa le ho:

  • Ho thibela lefu la tsoekere le ho imoloha
  • Prostate ea thibelo ea mofets'e le ho imoloha
  • Kalafo ya jck itch
  • kalafo ea maoto a moatlelete
  • kankere ea mala
  • tšoaetso ea maloetse a tsoang ka mpeng
  • thibelo ea kankere ea matšoafo le phomolo
  • sefuba
  • Thibelo e tloaelehileng ea sefuba le pholoso
  • tšoaetso ea tomoso ea bosali
  • felisoa

Boreleli-Garlic-Extract

Phapang Pakeng tsa 'Garlic e Ntšo' le Garlic e Ncha

Ka lebaka la karabelo ea Maillard hore konofolo e ncha e tsoella ho fetoha konofolo e ntšo, ha ho makatse hore mefuta ena e 'meli ea konofolo e fapane, eseng bohlale ba mmala feela, empa le sebopeho le tatso ea bona ea lik'hemik'hale.

Phetoho ea tatso e tlatselletsoa haholo ke phokotso ea li-fructans (fructose le tsoekere) ka konong nakong ea ts'ebetso. Qetellong, konofolo ea ka morao e qetella e le boemo bo tlase ba fructan ho feta konofolo e sa sebetsoang. Ho nka hore li-fructans ke baetsi ba tatso ea bohlokoa, lebaka la bona le fokotsehileng, ho bolelang hore konofolo e ntšo e ke ke ea ba le tatso e ntle ho feta e ncha.

Monko oa konofolo e ntšo ha o na matla joalo ka konofolo e ncha; ea pele e monate haholo tangy, syrupy le balsame. Ka lehlakoreng le leng, lintho tsa ho qetela ke tse matla hape li khopisang. Lebaka ke hobane konofolo e ntšo e na le li-allicin tse tlase. Nakong ea ts'ebetso ea botsofali, allicin e 'ngoe ea konofolo e ncha e fetoha metsoako ea antioxidant e kang diallyl sulfide, ajoene, diallyl disulfide, diallyl trisulfide hammoho le dithiins.

Ka lebaka la phetoho ea thepa ea fisiks, rosa e ntšo e na le biioac phezulu e ngata, mohlala, thepa ea antioxidant, ho feta konofolo e ncha. Lithako tse teng ka har'a konofolo e ntšo, joalo ka S-allylcysteine ​​(SAC) e sebetsa hantle ho feta ha e bapisoa le e ho konofolo e ncha.

Haholo-holo, konofolo e ntšo e ntšo e phahame ho li-oxidants, lik'halori, fiber le tšepe le tšepe haholo ha li bapisoa le konofolo e tala. Ka lehlakoreng le leng, konofolo e tala e na le vithamine C e phahameng, carbs le allicin ho feta sebopeho sa konofolo se sebetsoang.

Ho nepahala, likhaba tse peli tsa konofolo tse tala li na le likhalase tse 25, 3 mg sodium, limatlafatsi tse 5.6 g, protheine e le 1, mafura a 0.1, 0.4 g ea lijo, 5.2 mg ea vithamini C, 30 mg ea calcium le 0.3 mg ea tšepe. Ha ho bapisoa, tekanyo e lekanang ea konofolo e ntšo e na le likhalori tse 40, 4g carbs, protheine ea 1g, mafura a 2g, fiber ea lijo ea 1g, sodium ea 160mg, tšepe ea 0.64mg, vithamini ea 2.2mg le calcium milligrams tse 20.

Phapang Pakeng tsa 'Garlic e Ntšo' le Garlic e Ncha

Ka lebaka la karabelo ea Maillard hore konofolo e ncha e tsoella ho fetoha konofolo e ntšo, ha ho makatse hore mefuta ena e 'meli ea konofolo e fapane, eseng bohlale ba mmala feela, empa le sebopeho le tatso ea bona ea lik'hemik'hale.

Phetoho ea tatso e tlatselletsoa haholo ke phokotso ea li-fructans (fructose le tsoekere) ka konong nakong ea ts'ebetso. Qetellong, konofolo ea ka morao e qetella e le boemo bo tlase ba fructan ho feta konofolo e sa sebetsoang. Ho nka hore li-fructans ke baetsi ba tatso ea bohlokoa, lebaka la bona le fokotsehileng, ho bolelang hore konofolo e ntšo e ke ke ea ba le tatso e ntle ho feta e ncha.

Monko oa konofolo e ntšo ha o na matla joalo ka konofolo e ncha; ea pele e monate haholo tangy, syrupy le balsame. Ka lehlakoreng le leng, lintho tsa ho qetela ke tse matla hape li khopisang. Lebaka ke hobane konofolo e ntšo e na le li-allicin tse tlase. Nakong ea ts'ebetso ea botsofali, allicin e 'ngoe ea konofolo e ncha e fetoha metsoako ea antioxidant e kang diallyl sulfide, ajoene, diallyl disulfide, diallyl trisulfide hammoho le dithiins.

Ka lebaka la phetoho ea thepa ea fisiks, rosa e ntšo e na le biioac phezulu e ngata, mohlala, thepa ea antioxidant, ho feta konofolo e ncha. Lithako tse teng ka har'a konofolo e ntšo, joalo ka S-allylcysteine ​​(SAC) e sebetsa hantle ho feta ha e bapisoa le e ho konofolo e ncha.

Haholo-holo, konofolo e ntšo e ntšo e phahame ho li-oxidants, lik'halori, fiber le tšepe le tšepe haholo ha li bapisoa le konofolo e tala. Ka lehlakoreng le leng, konofolo e tala e na le vithamine C e phahameng, carbs le allicin ho feta sebopeho sa konofolo se sebetsoang.

Ho nepahala, likhaba tse peli tsa konofolo tse tala li na le likhalase tse 25, 3 mg sodium, limatlafatsi tse 5.6 g, protheine e le 1, mafura a 0.1, 0.4 g ea lijo, 5.2 mg ea vithamini C, 30 mg ea calcium le 0.3 mg ea tšepe. Ha ho bapisoa, tekanyo e lekanang ea konofolo e ntšo e na le likhalori tse 40, 4g carbs, protheine ea 1g, mafura a 2g, fiber ea lijo ea 1g, sodium ea 160mg, tšepe ea 0.64mg, vithamini ea 2.2mg le calcium milligrams tse 20.

Mofuta o mongata oa konsarete e ntšo

Hore na o batla ho nka libolo tse ntšo tsa linoko tse ntšo, lino tse ntšo tsa konofolo e ntšo, kapa konofolo e ntšo ka lero la grey, ho bohlokoa hore o latele tekanyo e khothalletsoang. Joalo ka ha oli ea konofolo e ntšo e le sehlahisoa sa tlhaho, e ka baka litlamorao tse mpe haeba e nkuoa ka bongata.

etsoe konofolo e ntšo e ntšoa phofo ho etsa lero la khalase e ntšo kapa lero le lefifi la konofolo kapa u kenyelletse sejong sa hau 1/3 tsp ea phofo hang ka letsatsi. Tekanyetso ena e sebetsa le ha o batla ho sebelisa konofolo e ntšo e ntšo ka lero la grey. Ho seng joalo o ka latela lengolo la ngaka ea hau.

U batla ho tseba hore na ho na le khalase e ntšo e kae e jang letsatsi? Che, ha ho na bopaki ba saense bo ka khethollang hore na garase e ntšo e jeoe hakae ka letsatsi. Leha ho le joalo, lithuto tse fapaneng le tlhahlobo ea basebelisi li fana ka maikutlo a hore Likotoana tse 5-10 (li-clove) ka letsatsi ke karolo e sebetsang ebile e bolokehileng.

Haeba u batla ho nka libolo kapa litau tse ntšo tsa konofolo, lethal e khothalletsoang ka ho fetesisa ke 200mg. Bakeng sa Black Garlic Extract Tonic Gold, lero le tummeng la konofolo e ntšo, lethal dose le khothalletsoang ke 70ml ka letsatsi.

Na likerese tse ntšo li na le kotsi?

Naleli ea konofolo e ntšo e sireletsehile haholo bakeng sa tšebeliso ea batho esita le ts'ebeliso ea li-topical. Empa, joalo ka tlatsetso ea molomo, e ka khona baka khatello ea maikutlo ka mpeng, empa sena se etsahala maemong a sa tloaelehang. Ka hona, haeba u na le bothata ba ho ba le bothata ba ka mpeng kapa bo amanang le tšilo ea lijo, ho bohlokoa hore u buisane le ngaka ea hau pele u nka motsoako kapa tlatsetso e amanang le eona.

Hape, litekanyetso tse kholo tsa molomo tsa ntsa ha li bolokehe ho bana, ha ts'ebeliso ea li-topical e ka baka tšenyo e kang ea letlalo la ngoana. Ho sebelisa li-topical ho ka baka lekhopho la letlalo ha le etsoa ho mosali oa moimana.

Boreleli-Garlic-Extract

Sesebelisoa sa Extra sa Garlic

1. Ntlafatso ea tatso ea lijo

Joalo ka konofolo e tala, konofolo e ntšo e ntšo e sebelisoa bakeng sa merero ea moo e eketsoang lijaneng tse fapaneng tsa savory. Ke o tlatsa tatso ea lijo.

2. litlolo

Ka lebaka la thepa ea eona ea antibacterial le anti-inflammatory, monko o sebelisoa e le karolo ea bohlokoa lihlahisoa tse fapaneng tsa litlolo. Lihlahisoa tsa litlolo tse nang le eona li sebetsa hantle thibelong ea makhopho kapa ntlafatsong ea bophelo ba moriri, har'a melemo e meng.

3. Phepelo e matlafatsang

Li-extracts tsa lamunu e ntšo li matlafatsa tsamaiso ea 'mele ea ho itšireletsa mafung. Kahoo, motsoako ona o sebelisetsoa ho etsa li-supplements tse thusang batho hore ba hole le mafu a fapaneng.

Lisebelisoa tsa Tlatsetso ea Garlic e Ntso

Lierekisi tse ntšo li ntšoa litlhare tloho ka mefuta e fapaneng ho kenyelletsa phofo e ntšo ea konofolo, phofo e ntšo ea konofolo kapa lero la konofolo e ntšo. E 'ngoe ea tlatsetso e tlisoa ke Black Garlic Extract Tonic Gold, e leng lero le lefifi la konofolo.

fihlela qeto e

Nala ea konofolo e ntšo ke sehlahisoa sa konofolo e tala e tlotsitsoeng. E fumaneha ka mokhoa oa konofolo e ntšo e ntšoa phofo, linaoa tse ntšo tsa konofolo kapa lierekisi tse ntšo tsa konofolo. Melemo e meng ea tharollo ena ke ho itšireletsa ha 'mele molemong oa tšireletso ea moriri, thibelo ea tahlehelo ea moriri, ho ntlafatsoa hoa letlalo le ntlafatso ea molumo le boima ba' mele. Tlhahiso e sebelisoa libakeng tse fapaneng, ho kenyelletsa bonono ba indasteri le indasteri ea litlolo.

References

Banerjee S., Mukherjee PK, Maulik S. Garlic joalo ka antioxidant: Tse ntle, tse mpe le tse mpe. Phytother. Res. 2003; 17: 97-106.

Ha AW, Ying T., Kim WK litlamorao tsa konofolo e ntšo (Allium satvium) e qotsitsoeng ho lipid metabolism ho likhoto e fepa lijo tse phahameng tsa mafura. Nutr. Res. Itloaetse. 2015; 9: 30–36

Kang O.J. Teko ea li-melanoidin tse bōpiloeng ho tloha ho konofolo e ntšo ka mor'a mehato e fapaneng ea ho lokisa mafura. Pele. Nutr. Saense ea Lijo. 2016; 21: 398

Kim DG, Kang MJ, Hong SS, Choi YH, Shin JH Antiinfigueatory litlamorao tsa metsoako e sebetsang e arohantsoeng le konofolo e ntšo e tsofetseng. Phytother. Res. 2017; 31: 53-61

Milner J. Encyclopedia ea Lijo tse Tlatsetsang Lijo. Marcel Dekker; New York, NY, USA: 2005. Garlic (Allium sativum) maq. 229-240.

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2020-05-14 Sehlopha se seng, Ho tsofala, Nootropics, Products, tlatsana
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